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 The Engine must be installed where a generous supply of fresh air is assured. 

A portable electric light is recommended in addition to the fixed lighting of the engine room. 

The most convenient height for the crankshaft is 27 in. (68.5 cm.) above the ground. 

Keep exhaust and water pipes as short and straight as possible. 

Leave a space of about 3 feet all round the engine for ease of access and maintenance. 

Foundations : 

Our standard foundation drawings give the dimensions of suitable concrete beds. These dimensions are the minimum for a good solid subsoil and modification will have to be made where the subsoil is soft, water logged, or otherwise of a special character. 

Set the engine as level as possible, packing under the engine feet with thin metal strips, placed as close as possible to the holding down bolts. 

Portable Models : 

Place portable models in as level a position as possible. 

Belt Drive : 

Driving belts must be run as close up to the flywheel as possible to avoid undue strain on the bearings and crankshaft. Where "fast" and "loose" pulleys are used, drive the "fast" pulley from the side nearest the flywheel. 

Through Cooling : 

The cooling of an engine by passing water through it to waste, with or without the use of a small tank, is totally unsuitable and must not be used under any circumstances. 

Exhaust Pipes : 

If a longer exhaust pipe than standard must be fitted, this should at no point slope upward from the engine, unless a suitable moisture trap is fitted at the lowest art of the pipe. This is to prevent moisture, caused by condensation, draining back into the cylinder and causing damage. 

If more than 10 feet of pipe is used, the bore of the pipe must be increased. 

Pipe sizes :

Up to 10 feet - 2 in. (50.8 mm.) bore

10 feet to 20 feet - 2½ in. (63.5 mm.) bore

over 20 feet - 3 in. (76.2 mm.) bore 

To facilitate cleaning the exhaust Pipe during overhaul, it meet be erected in easily detached sections of about 4 feet in length and not concreted in at any Point. 


Essential for Easy Starting : 

Engine must turn easily when decompressed. If not check that suitable lubricating oil is in use. Check that valve lifters are correctly adjusted. 

Injection creak must be heard (or felt-place fingers on fuel injector pipe). If not, the cause may be : 

No fuel in tank. Injector nozzle valve stuck open. 

Air lock in system. Fuel pump delivery valve seat scored. 

Good compression on high compression ratio. If not, check for : 

Worn cylinder. Leaking inlet or exhaust valve 

Piston ring stuck in their grooves. possibility of beat valve stem. 

Fuel pump rack to be free (stopping lever down). 

Overload pawl on fuel pump must he set for starting. 

Knocking :

This my be caused by :
Vallve, probably exhaust, sticking in guide, and hitting piston clean valve steam and guides. 
Slack bearing - fit new bearing. 
Insufficient clearance between piston and cylinder head - check and adjust. 
Injection too early - check and adjust. 
lFlywheel loose on shaft - drive taper key in tightly. 
Carbon Deposit :
Excessive deposit may be due to : 
Choked exhaust system - dismantle and clean. 
Long period of idling - running too cool. 
Unsuitable fuel oil. 
Unsuitable lubricating oil. 
Injector not spraying correctly - clean nozzle. 
Late injection of Fuel - check timing. 

Smoky Exhaust : 

The exhaust gas should be clear at full load. If it is not, steps should be taken to clear it. Black smoke is due to incomplete combustion of fuel caused by :
Overload, causing an excessive quantity of fuel to be injected. 
Choked air intake. 
Poor atomization due to a choked injector nozzle. 
Unsuitable fuel. 
Blue smoke, when faint, is generally the result of light load on over cooling.
Heavy blue smoke is caused by lubricating oil passing the piston rings because of either piston rings carboned in grooves or a worn cylinder.

Engine Stop :

This may be due to : 
Lack of fuel - tank empty, air or water in fuel system, fuel system chocked. 
Overheating - shortage of water an lubricating oil. 

Loss of Power : 

This may be due to : 
Loss of compression. See difficult starting. 
Incorrect tappet clearance. 
Choked exhaust pipe. 
Fuel injection system. Injector but of order. Fuel pump out of order, or timing slipped. 

Failure to obtain Normal Speed : 

Engine started under overload. 
Bearings too tight (after overhaul). 
Insufficient fuel. 
Injection retarded. 

Cooling : 

Occasionally examine flexible hose to see that it is clear. There is a danger of swelling inside, so obstructing the flow of water, and a good test is to compress the hose, which should give and not feel hard and solid. 
In districts where the water is impure, the water jacket around the cylinder and in the cylinder head should be freed from any deposit. 
To remove hard deposits in cylinder water jacket fill with a solution of washing soda in the proportion of 1¼ lbs. of soda to 1 gallon of boiling water. Then wash the jacket out with fresh water. 

Specification : 

The engine must be ran on good quality diesel engine heavy duty detergent lubricating oil. 

The lubricating oils most meet specifications IS 496 Straight mineral oils am not suitable, neither are oils of less detergency than specified. 

The use of good quality lubricants will give longer periods between overhauls and extend engine life.

Mixing of Oils : 

If an engine has been on on straight mineral oil for more than 250 hours since completely overhauled (or since new) before it is changed to Heavy Duty (Detergent) Lubricants, the deposits formed by the straight oils may be dislodged by the letter and choke the oilways and filters. For this reason it is necessary to flush the engine thoroughly with Heavy Duty (Detergent) oil and change the oil after 150 hours and then resume normal changes every 250 hours. The filters must receive frequent attention during this initial period. 

Sometimes Heavy Duty (Detergent) oils increase the oil consumption, in which case a heavier grade may be used. 


Lubricating Oil System 6/1 and 8/1 Lubricating Oil System 12/2 and 16/2 

Lubricating Oil System :

Lubrication is by a plunger type pump operated by a cam on the camshaft. The pump feeds a generous supply of oil to the main bearings and to the trough into which the dipper of the connecting rod big end dips. The big end bearings are lubricated from below by a hollow dipper in the 12/2 & 16/2 engines, and by oil holes from above in the single cylinder engines. The piston, cylinder and other working parts are lubricated by splash. 

The lubricating oil pump of the single cylinder engines, mounted the end of the crankcase below the fuel pump is fitted with a hand priming lever. The two cylinder engine is primed from inside by reaching through the crankcase and working the oil pump plunger with the thumb until the oil is seen to flow down over the main bearings. The plug on the top of the pump fitting may be slackened if necessary to check that the pump is working. An oil pressure indicator gauge and tap can be supplied if specialty ordered. The valve stems are lubricated rated from small oil reservoirs in the cylinder head, and the rocker shaft is provided with its own greaser. 

Near the valve tappets is a brass plug marked "OIL". This is for applying oil to the camshaft bearing if the engine has been standing idle for a long time. Tappet heads and push rod heads are cupped to enable them to hold their own supply of oil for a reasonable time. 

Before Starting Engine for the First Time of After Overhaul :

Remove crankcase door and fill troughs under connecting rod (or rods) with lubricating oil. 

Apply all to each it hole in top of big end bearing. 

Open oil filler and fill engine sump to within ½ it, (12.7 min.) of the top of oil filter. 

Operate lubricating oil pump by hand or rotate engine by starting handle until oil flows down over main bearings and into dipper troughs on twin cylinder engines. 

Close up crankcase and fill recesses in cylinder head with engine oil for valve lubrication. Also fill cups in push rods and tappet heads. 

Remove brass plug near tappets, marked "Oil", and pour in ¼ pint of oil. 

Fill rocket shaft greasers and give several turns to lubricate valve rockers. 

Lubricate any AUXILIARY MACHINERY driven by the engine. 

Lubricating Off Sump capacities :

6/1 and 8/1 ... ... ... ... 4.5 pints (2.6 liters) 

1212 add 16/2 ... ... ... ... 10 pint (5.7 liters) 


Changing Oil :

Change lubricating oil after every 250 hours running.

Drain sump when engine is warm through drain plug to be found on 6/1 and 8/1 engines below the oil filter, and on 12/2 and 16/2 engines in the oil suction pipe below. 

Remove crankcase door, splash plate (6/1 and 8/1) and lubricating oil strainer.

Wipe down inside of crankcase, including trough, as clean as possible.

If paraffin is used to clean out sludge, crankcase must be wiped dry before recharging with fresh oil.

Clean and replace oil strainer.


Felt Air Filter (When supplied) :

Air filter is suitable for average operating conditions, but where very dusty conditions prevail an "oil bath" filter should be fitted.

It is important that the air filter is cleaned regularly so that the passage of air to the engine does not become partially or wholly blocked. The time interval between cleanings will vary with the amount of dust in the air, but it is recommended that this operation should be performed once a month under the cleanest of conditions.

Remove felt from cleaner and shake vigorously, then beat dust and grit out of the felt.

If the felt is damp and oily it will be necessary to wash it in paraffin and the thoroughly dry before replacing in the cleaner. Fuel oil is NOT recommended for washing the felt as it will not readily evaporate and petrol vapor may cause detonation.

Oil Bath Type Air Filter (When Supplied) :

Mount the filter in horizontal position and maintain the correct oil level as marked on the filter body. If the level is ¼ in. Too high the engine will inhale the cleaning oil, which will cause excessive carbon deposits on the valves, pistons, etc. If too little oil is used the cleaning action will not be efficient. Check the oil level weekly, and if necessary and fresh oil. Lubricating oil as used for the engine may be employed. Change the oil and clean completely every 500 hours running, or more frequently if there is any sign of the oil becoming impregnated with sand of dirt. To clean, remove from engine and dismantle. Wash in paraffin and allow to dry. Examine cork and felt washers during dismantling and change if necessary.

Air tight joints, including those between the filter and the engine are essential for efficient air cleaning.

Vacuum Breather :

The purpose of the vacuum breather on the crankcase door is to maintain a partial vacuum in the crankcase so that the lubricating oil will not work out through the bearings and joints.

If the thin metal disc should become stuck with paint or grime, remove and scrape clean on the flat surface, care being taken not to kink or distort it. Do not mislay the small distance piece which supports the cover.


To Remove Compression Change-Over Valve (6/1 and 12/2 only) Option Extra :

This is device to give a high compression for starting, and lower compression for normal running. 

The Valve screwed "IN" give high compression and "OUT" gives low compression.

DO NOT run under heavy load with high compression.

For long runs at 1/3 load or less, use high compression.

Always see the valve is either Full in or Fully Out.

Keep the screw thread clean and bright. 

Remove fuel pipes from injector and unscrew nut for releasing auxiliary chamber. This will withdraw the outer combustion chamber. Take note of the thin copper washer. 

The main or inner combustion chamber plug may be loosened by compression in the manner described for cylinder head. 

Drive a hard wooden Plug into the ¼ in. dia. hole in the center to prevent air leakage and then replace the outer portions just removed with the hand wheel in the "Out" position, and with the outer combustion chamber nut screwed into the head three or four turns which will be sufficient to prevent the inner combustion chamber from being ejected too violently when subjected to the force of compression. 

Stubborn cases will have to be treated by drilling and tapping with a fine 3/8 in. thread and drawing out with a screw.

Unscrew small nut in center of hand wheel to extract valve. 

Remove valve, taking care of spring, spring washer and woodruff key. 


To Remove Cylinder Head : 

Drain water. (If compression change-over valve is to be removed, loosen at this stage. See above). 

It Remove cylinder head cover. 

Remove injector. 

Detach inlet pipe, exhaust pipe, water pipe, and fan assembly if radiator cooled. 

Remove valve rocket assembly, push rods and valve caps. 

Undo cylinder head nuts. 

Lift off cylinder head. In obstinate cases replace the injector (but not the fuel pipes), valve rockers, valve push rods and two cylinder head holding down nuts, and slacken each of these holding down bids about two turns. 

Next proceed as for starting. With valve lifter engaged, turn the starting handle quickly to get up a good speed and then smartly disengage valve lifter, when the compression in the cylinder should cause the loosening of the joint between cylinder head and cylinder block.

CYLINDER HEAD (6/1 and 12/2 engines)

To Remove Valve Guides : 

The inlet valve guide ran, be drive, out 

The exhaust valve guide must be screwed out (turn anti-clockwise). 

To Replace Cylinder Head : 

Note : In the twin cylinder engine the cylinder heads are so arranged that the two inlet valves come together on the inside, the parts being connected by a common inlet manifold. The cylinder heads, therefore, most be replaced in their original positions.

Refit valve guides, inlet and exhaust valves 

See that cylinder head gasket is undamaged and in place. i.e. by position of dowel. 

Replace cylinder head on studs, and tighten nuts finger tight. 

Note : Each cylinder head gasket must be replaced on its own cylinder If these have been changed then the head clearance must be checked as below. 

Refit compression change-over valve, taking care that the copper washer between the two parts is in place. 

Fit inlet manifolds on twin cylinder engines to ensure correct alignment. Failure to carry out this step will probably lead to cracked or broken manifolds. 

Nuts to be tightened so that the cylinder head is pulled down flat, compressing the gasket evenly. This can be achieved by tightening the nuts in turn diagonally. Tighten each nut a little at a time and go over three or four times.

After the initial run, following the replacement of the cylinder head and while the engine is still hot, re-tighten the cylinder head nuts as described above. 

Replace valve end caps, push rods and valve rocker gear and adjust valve clearances as under "Valve Adjustment". 

If new heads are being fitted to multi cylinder engines they should be checked that the inlet guides are in the correct position. If they are not, as can happen if two single cylinder type heads are supplied, the guides must be changed around in one head so that the inlet guides are in the center of the engine. Regrind the valves.

Note : Inlet valve push rod is longer than exhaust valve push rod. 

To Check Cylinder Head Clearance :

Place two small pieces of lead on top of piston, above the line of the gudgeon pin and not beneath the valves of transfer port. Tighten down cylinder head and turn piston slowly past T.D.C. Remove cylinder head and measure thickness of lead; this should fall between 0.045 in. (1.14 mm.) and 0.050 in. (1.27 mm.) for types 6/1 and 12/2 and between 0.0075 in. (1.9 mm.) and 0.080 in (2.03 mm.) for the 8/1 and 16/2 engines. The clearance may be adjusted by the use of paper joints, placed between the cylinder block and the crankcase.

If the clearance is much too large it my be due to worn bearings or a bent connecting rod


To Remove Piston :

Remove cylinder head and cylinder block. 

Remove crankcase doors. 

Disconnect the big end bearing of the connecting rod.

Note : which way the dipper faces and the manner in which the big end is marked, so that it can be assembled i the same way. 

Lift out piston and connecting rod. Reassemble big end loosely. 

Remove either circlip, warm piston and drive out gudgeon pin. 

To Remove Piston Ring : 

First work them loose, then stand the piston on a flat surface, and insert thin strips of metal between the top ring and the piston at four different places. Ease the ring off over the strips of metal, and repeat the process for the other rings. Piston rings are springy hot will break if roughly handled. 

To Replace Piston Rings : 

Piston groove, and oil holes must be thoroughly clean. Piston rings, if new, must be wiped clean of preservative grease; used rings must have any carbon deposits removed. 

To ensure that the rings will fit property when assembled on the piston, roll each one round in its own groove. Where a ring is slack, and a new one is no improvement, it will be necessary to consider changing the piston. 

Place the ring in the lower part of the cylinder, square with the bore, and measure the gap between the two ends with a feeler gauge. The correct gap is not less than 0.012 in. (0.310 mm.). 

Wipe all parts clean and dry and assemble the rings in their grooves by sliding them over strips of metal as in removal. 

To Reassemble : 

Refit piston and connecting rod, noting numbering of big end bearing and in which direction the dipper faces. The dipper fitted to 6/1 and 8/1 engines is flattened in section and should cut the oil edgeways not broadside on. The hollow dipper in twin cylinder engines is a scoop, the opening of which is turned away from the crankcase door. 

Fit paper cylinder block joints equal to number removed (and 2 metal shims 0.015" 0.38 mm thick for types 8/1 and 16/2). Place a flat bar across crankcase close to connecting rod and bring piston skirt firmly down on it. 

Oil piston rings and stagger the gaps. Place piston ring clamp in position and compress rings. The clamp should close quite easily. If any force is required it is better to take it off and try again. 

Oil cylinder bore, lift cylinder block over starts and lower into position pushing down piston ring clamp as far as the bar underneath the piston. 

Turn crankshaft to move piston up into cylinder. 

Support cylinder block, remove piston ring clamp and bar and allow cylinder block to drop into position. 

Assemble cylinder head. 


Connecting Rod Big End Bearing : 

These are steel back white metalled shells in the bottom half and lead bronze in the top half and mast not be scraped or touched up in any way. The running clearance with the crankpin should not exceed 0.003 in. (0.076 mm.). 

When assembling the bearings on the connecting rod it is most important that the backs are scrupulously clean and that there is interference between the bearing and the bore of the connecting rod. This interference, or nip, is measured by placing the bearing in the connecting rod, tightening both bolts to the normal extent, then slackening one bolt only and measuring the corresponding gap in the rod at the parting line. This gap should be between 0.004 in. (0.102 mm.) and 0.006 in. (0.152 mm.). 

Ensure the dipper is secure before replacing the connecting rod cap; it is screwed in place and 4 dots punched into the circumference prevent turning. Place a cork over the end of the dipper whenever working in the crankcase to avoid injury to the hands. 

Tightening torque for big end nuts is 55 lb. ft. (7.6 kg. m.) 

Main Bearings : 

These are of the bush type and need no attention as long as they are properly lubricated. The bush is located in the housing by a locating screw through the top of the housing, to ensure that the oil holes register correctly.


Decarbonising : 


Remove cylinder head and dismantle. 

Remove piston and rings. 

ALL PARTS must be scraped clean of deposits of carbon and washed in paraffin before reassembly.

Special care must be take, with regard to :

Recess in bore of exhaust valve guide 

Valve ports. 

Piston ring grooves. 

Inside of piston. 

Regrind valve seats if not in perfect condition. This applies also to the compression change-over value (6/1 and 12/2 only.) 

Clean out all exhaust piping, expansion chambers, silencers, etc. Every part must be scrupulously clean before being placed in position.
Leveling your engine

This one can cost you main bearings, which are a pain to change - watch out and make sure it doesn't happen to you!

My engine sets are usually mounted on 6 x 6 timbers with 1/2" steel plate on top of them. In the past this has not been a problem but in one case it did - the leveling of a 20/2 engine was not checked before first run. If a bit more attention had been paid it would have been noticed that the dipper on one side appeared to go further into the oil than the one on the other side, but that's just 100% hindsight...To make matters worse, this was the engine's first run and so the oil pump was not primed.

I think what happened in this case was that the concrete the engine was set up on was not level, resulting in a 1/2" difference in height from one side to the other. With an engine like the Listeroid, that small difference can result in oil not being thrown up onto the main bearing on the oil-poor side with catastrophic results.

This problem can easily be avoided by following a few easy steps - make sure you follow them and avoid having to take that darned Gib key out and removing a really heavy flywheel!

1) After you get the engine set in its place, put a level across the front and back of the frame - if it is not level, shim as necessary.

2) Fill the crankcase with the correct amount of oil, turn the engine by hand and make sure the dippers are going below the oil surface equally.

3) With the neat little oil can that came with your engine, go inside the crankcase and oil the main bearings and the connecting rod bearings - there are holes in the cranks for doing just that.

4) Take the top nut out the oil pump (or the gauge if that is what you have) and pre-prime the oil pump. Put the nut back but don't tighten it down - you will have to take it off again to refill the pump after the engine starts.

5) Start the engine and wait until it settles down to a normal speed. Take the oil pump nut out again and fill the hole with oil until it starts to bubble out - this may take a while, be patient and keep on filling. When the oil is spilling out, put the nut back in and tighten it down.

6) After a few minutes of running, loosen the nut again and check that oil is being pumped through - it will bubble up past the threads as you loosen the nut. If it does, tighten it back up, if not, take the nut out again and re-prime the pump.

Do those few things and you will avoid having to replace bearings, but if you do have a problem, I carry spares!
 First Run


You are now the proud owner of a Listeroid, you have just broken it out of the wooden box (now wasn't that fun!) and you are wondering what to do next.

These engines are NOT Hondas - they are as delivered from the factory and may need some attention prior to running. Always check that fuel racks are opening and closing freely, if they do not FIND OUT WHY and FIX IT. The Indian manufacturers just LOVE green paint - the engines are bolted to the shipping box bottom and then sprayed with paint - which gets into all the moving parts areas. Take a bit of time and clean them out - your engine will be all the happier if you do these simple things.

Well, first of all, a couple of words of warning. This is an open flywheel engine and as such is a dangerous machine. If you are not sure of your capabilities or are unsure or afraid of open rapidly moving parts, DO NOT START THE ENGINE. It is a powerful machine that demands respect and attention - do not attempt to start it if you have consumed alcohol or are very tired. Let it stand in the corner as an unusual conversation piece. IF you are going to fire it up, make sure ALL required guards are in place and that you are wearing suitable clothing. Obviously, loose clothing such as scarves and tie are NOT recommended anywhere near a rotating wheel.

Having said that, if you are intent on making the engine run, there are a few things you need to do first:

Physically check the engine over, make sure all of the parts are connected (there shouldn't be anything "just hanging around") make yourself familiar with the fuel rack (how it turns on and off) and the compression release lever. READ THE BOOK to make sure you can identify and locate parts it refers to. Especially note where the fuel rack lever is and how to turn it on and off. Follow any additional instructions the book gives you. 

Open up the access hatch to the crankcase - have a GOOD look around inside, clean off any residual oil (the engine was test fired at the factory) and make sure there is no sand or other debris in the crankcase. Check the rotation of the crankshaft and camshaft, are they moving easily in relation to one another? 

Check the movement of the main bearings - are they moving easily and smoothly? If so, fill the crankcase up to the recommended level with new 30 weight oil, replace the crankcase cover. 

Install the mufflers and air filter that came with the motor (you will probably be changing these out later, so don't worry too much about them) 

Have a good look at the start handle. Note the angled pin that intrudes into the centre hole of the handle. Check this pin and ensure that it moves up and down freely against its spring. THIS IS IMPORTANT - if the pin will not move freely, it will get caught when starting the engine. If you have to, scrape away the paint and oil the pin until it does move easily. 

Take off the top shield on the engine - there will be a large metal or plastic nut on top of the engine, unscrew this and removed the shield - you may need to tap it lightly to break the paint free. 

WITHOUT turning on the fuel rack, note the direction of rotation of the engine (it is shown on one of the flywheels), put the start handle on the crankshaft end and try to turn the engine in the indicated direction of rotation - if all you hear is a clicking sound and the handle rotates around the shaft, you are at the wrong side of the engine. 

O.K., now you have the start handle on the correct side, turn the engine over SLOWLY and note the rise and fall of the push rods and valves (At this point you should still have the compression release engaged so you are not turning the engine against compression - that comes in a minute!) LISTEN to the sounds the engine is making - you should be able to hear a "clink" as the injector fires. Watch as the push rods fall - are the lifters (at the bottom of the push rods) going all the way down? (Take the compression release off to check this - you will note how much resistance there is when you turn the engine now!) If not there is probably a bit of paint getting in the way - clean it off and try again. When you are satisfied, slip the compression release lever back under the exhaust valve lifter. 

Put some fuel in the tank, open up the fuel cock under the fuel tank. Open up the fuel rack. Look at the injector pump - on the inside face you will see a large screw head - unscrew that almost all of the way out (don't worry if it comes right out, you are not going to hurt anything except you may have a fuel leak on the floor) When fuel is flowing freely out of that hole (no bubbles) tighten up the screw again (not too tight, but well seated) so there is no leak. 

Next, unfasten the nut from the top of the injector pump that has the tube in it going to the injector. Turn over the engine and wait until you see an equal volume of fuel pumping out of the fuel pump as is activated when you turn the engine (This only happens when the fuel cam pushes on the fuel pump assembly, every couple of turns of the engine). Screw the nut back onto the top of the fuel pump, then unscrew the other end where it is attached to the injector. Again, turn the engine over until you see fuel being ejected from the open end of this tube. As you are turning the engine, re-tighten this nut firmly onto the injector. Congratulations, you have just primed the fuel system! Turn off the fuel rack. 

Look at the rocker arms - see that hole in the centre? Squirt a couple of shots of oil into it with the handy oil can that came with the engine. This will lubricate the rockers - there is no other oil getting to that area so it needs to be done every day or so of running. 

O.K., now you are ready to try your first run. Again, check how the start handle turns the engine and note what happens when you stop cranking - the crankshaft will continue to rotate, but the handle will stay still in your hand. Remember this! 

Make sure there is nothing in the area that could get caught in the engine when it starts. 

It may be best, at first, to have two people present when you start the engine - one to do the actual cranking, the other to flick off the fuel rack lever and the compression release. As you get more used to it, you will be able to do this alone.

Make sure the fuel rack is closed up (by lifting the lever - you don't want to flood the engine) 

Start turning the handle on the crankshaft and build up to a reasonable speed, when you are there have your assistant open up the fuel rack then move the compression release lever out of the way as you continue cranking. You will feel the compression of the engine as you are cranking now, but the engine should fire up quite quickly. KEEP HOLD OF THE START HANDLE and just "walk" it off the crankshaft - not nearly as scary as it sounds! (If you let it go it will spin with the engine and could cause severe damage to shinbones etc!) 
The engine should come up to operating speed quite quickly then run evenly at that speed, with a little variance either way. 650 rpm's (or 850 or 1,000 in the bigger engines) is quite slow but seems to be fast when looking at an open flywheel. If you have no idea of what 650 rpm looks like, DON'T START THE ENGINE. 

If there is excessive vibration or the engine is moving around, close off the fuel rack and the engine will stop. Don't forget, at this point you probably have not installed a cooling system, so don't run it for very long anyway, just a few seconds. There will be some vibration - these are not Rolls-Royce engines, they are a basic form of power and are not as well balanced as modern units. 

Turn off the engine and have a bit of a celebration - you deserve it!